Common names (selected) English: crow garlic, false garlic, stag garlic, wild garlic, wild onion; French: ail des vignes; German: Kochs Lauch, Weibergslauch; Italian: aglio delle vigne; Portguese: alho-das-vinhas
Description: Herbaceous perennial
Native regions and distribution: Europe, temperate Asia, North Africa
Urban habitat: Commonly found in minimally maintained lawns, disturbed woodlands, at the edges of freshwater ponds and streams.
Ecological function: Disturbance-adapted colonizer. Food and habitat for wildlife.
History / human uses: Presumably brought to North America with the arrival of European settlers, Allium vineale was used widely by several Native American tribes, including Cherokee, Hopi, Mahuna, and Rappahannock, medicinally to treat coughs, deafness, digestive problems, and as used as a pulmonary and respiratory aid, blood purifier and purging agent. The plant was rubbed on the body to protect against insect and scorpion bites. In its native territory, Allium vineale was used as a garlic substitute and as treatment for cancer. The small, wheat-sized bulbils frequently thrives in wheat grown in infested areas. Bread made from such wheat is garlic-flavored, and cows grazing in infested pastures produce garlic-flavored milk.